Abortifacient – An herb that can cause a miscarriage and should be avoided in pregnancy. Examples include Wild Ginger

Achene – A small dry indehiscent (closed) one-seeded fruit. Examples include Calendula, Dandelion, Sunflower

Acidic – Having a pH less than 7.

Acrid – Sharp or biting to the taste or smell. Acrid herbs often ‘grab’ at the back of the throat. A sub-category of Pungent. Examples include Bay Laurel, Cayenne, Lobelia, Angelica, Cinnamon, Black Cohosh, Coriander, Ginger

Adaptogen – Herbs that help balance, restore and protect the body. Examples: American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Astragalus, Burdock, Eleuthero, Maitake, Nettles, Schisandra, Shatavari, Reishi, Rhodiola

Adrenal tonic – Boosts the activity of the adrenal glands while toning and nourishing them. Examples include Astragalus, Licorice, Nettles

Adventitious roots – Roots that grow from parts of the plant that are not roots, typically from stems or leaves.

Aggregate – A fruit that develops from the merger of several ovaries that were separate in a single flower. Examples of aggregate fruits include Blackberries, Dewberries, Raspberries.

Alkaline – Having a pH greater than 7.

Alkaloids – A group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. Alkaloids are soluble in alcohol and only slightly  soluble in water. Acidification of the menstrum with vinegar can sometimes increase the potency of the extract. Alkaloids can be neutralized by tannins or become unstable by heat but not always. Herbs containing alkaloids include Bloodroot, Comfrey, Goldenseal, Lobelia, Motherwort

Alterative – Herbs that gradually restore healthy bodily functions. See also depurative. Examples: Ashwagandha, Black Cohosh, Bloodroot, Burdock, Calendula, Comfrey, Coriander, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elderberry & flower, Elecampane, Feverfew, Goldenseal, Gumweed, Horsetail, Licorice, Marshmallow, Milky Oats, Mullein, Nettles, Osha, Poke, Red Clover, Saint John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto, Shepherd’s Purse, Speedwell, Thuja, Willow, Wood Betony

Alveoli – Microscopic air sacs in the lungs.

Anabolic – The synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances from simpler ones. Examples include Saw Palmetto, Ashwagandha

Analgesic – Herbs capable of reducing or eliminating pain without causing loss of consciousness. Examples: American Ginseng, Ginger, Ashwagandha, Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Black Pepper, Boneset, California Poppy, Cinnamon, Clove, Echinacea, Elecampane, Feverfew, Lavender, Motherwort, Mugwort, Mulberry,  Mullein, Mustard, Osha, Pine, Poke, Reishi, Saint John’s Wort, Usnea, Wild Ginger, Wild Yam, Willow, Wood Betony, Yarrow

Anaphrodisiac – Herbs that lower sensual desire. The opposite of an aphrodisiac. Examples include Lavender, Sage

Androgynophore –  the shared male and female reproductive structure of a flower.

Anesthetic – An herb that temporarily depresses neuronal function, producing total or partial loss of sensation. Examples include Bay Laurel, Bloodroot, Clove, Fennel, Lavender, Osha, Wild Ginger

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors – Heart medications that widen or dilate blood vessels to improve the amount of blood the heart pumps and lower blood pressure. ACE inhibitors also increase blood flow, which helps to decrease the amount of work the heart has to do. Examples include Maitake

Anhydrotic / anhidrotic  – An herb or other substance that slows or stops sweat. Examples include Sage

Annual – Plants that complete their life cycle in one year or less (grow from seed to seed).

Anodyne – Herbs that soothe or eliminate pain. Examples include Burdock (leaf), Catnip, Clove, Comfrey, Coriander, Cumin, Dandelion, Echinacea, Horsetail, Hops, Mullein, Peppermint, Pleurisy Root, Poke, Rose, Rosemary, Saint John’s Wort, Skullcap, Valerian, Willow, Yarrow

Antacid – A substance which neutralizes stomach acidity. Examples include Marshmallow, Dandelion, Licorice

Anthelmintic – Herbs that expel parasitic worms either by stunning or killing them. Examples include Black Walnut, Blue Cohosh, Elecampane, Hop, Mugwort, Nettles, Queen Anne’s Lace, Valerian, Wormwood

Antiaging – Herbs that tend to prevent or lessen the effects of aging. Examples include Astragalus, Oyster Mushroom

Antiallergenic – Herbs which prevent or minimize an allergic reaction. Examples include American Ginseng, Astragalus, Nettles

Antianaphylactic – Herbs that work against allergic reactions (anaphylactic) to slow or stop them. Example: Reishi,

Antiandrogenic – A  substance capable of inhibiting the biological effects of androgens. Examples include Saw Palmetto,

Antiangiogenic – Herbs that stop tumors from growing their own blood vessels. Examples include Maitake,

Antiarthritic – Herbs that alleviate or prevent arthritis. Examples include Ashwagandha, Licorice

Antiasthmatic – Herbs that may be used either in the treatment or prevention of asthma attacks. Examples include Ashwagandha, Cacao, New England Aster, Gumweed

Antiatherosclerosis – Herbs that counter the effects of atherosclerosis. Examples include Mulberry

Antibacterial – Herbs that inhibit bacterial growth or kill bacteria. Examples: Aloe, Ashwagandha, Bay Laurel, Black Pepper, Bloodroot, Boneset, Burdock,  Calendula, Cacao, Cardamom, Clove, Coltsfoot, Coriander, Cumin, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elecampane, Eleuthero, Fennel, Forsythia, Ginger, Ginkgo,  Goldenseal, Gumweed,  Honeysuckle, Horsetail, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Licorice, Motherwort, Mugwort, Mulberry, Mullein, Mustard, Nutmeg, Osha, Oyster Mushroom, Peppermint, Pine, Poke, Queen Anne’s Lace, Ragweed, Red Clover, Reishi, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Saint John’s Wort, Skullcap, Turkey Tail, Usnea, Valerian, Willow

Antibiotic – Herbs that have the ability to destroy or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Examples: Ashwagandha, Echinacea, Goldenseal, Honeysuckle, Hops, Osha, Saint John’s Wort, Usnea

Anticancer – Herbs that inhibit or kill cancer cells. Examples include American Ginseng, Mullein, Turkey Tail

Anticarcinoma – Herbs that inhibit or kill carcinomas. Examples include False Unicorn

Anticatarrhal – Herbs that help the body to remove excess mucous from the body. Examples include Echinacea, Elderberry & flower, Goldenrod, Goldenseal, Nettles, Peppermint, Pine, Plantain, Poke, Queen Anne’s Lace, Sage, Saw Palmetto, Thuja,

Anticoagulant – Prevents coagulation of blood.Examples include Ginkgo

Anticonvulsant –A herb used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Examples include Black Pepper

Antidepressant – Herbs used for depression and other conditions. Examples include American Ginseng, Cacao, False Unicorn, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Milky Oats, Nutmeg, Rose, Rosemary, St. John’s wort

Antidermatitic – Having the ability to reduce or relieve skin irritation and inflammation.

Antidiabetic – Having the ability to lower blood glucose levels. Examples include American Ginseng, Maitake, Reishi,

Antidiarrheal – Provides symptomatic relief for diarrhea. Examples include Blackberry, Black Pepper, Cacao, Catnip, Trillium

Antidyspeptic – Herbs that counter dyspepsia (indigestion). Herbs include Ashwagandha

Antiemetic – Herbs that are effective against vomiting and nausea. Examples include Clove, Forsythia, Fennel, Ginger, Nutmeg, Peppermint

Antiestrogenic – Suppresses or inhibits oestrogenic activity. Examples include Saw Palmetto

Antifatigue – Herbs that prevent or reduce fatigue. Examples include American Ginseng

Antifungal – Herbs that inhibit fungal growth or kill fungi. Examples include Aloe, Ashwagandha, Bay Laurel, Black Walnut, Burdock, Calendula, Cardamom, Clove, Coriander, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elecampane, Eleuthero, Fennel, Forsythia, Ginger, Ginkgo, Goldenseal, Honeysuckle, Horsetail, Jewelweed, Lavender, Licorice, Motherwort, Mugwort, Mullein, Mustard, Oregon Grape Root, Osha, Peppermint, Poke, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Turkey Tail, Usnea, Wild Ginger, Willow, Yarrow

Antigalactagogue – Herbs that decrease the production of breast milk. Examples include Sage

Antihistamine – Herbs used to block the histamine reaction. Examples: Cacao, Jewelweed, Lemon Balm, Mullein, Osha, Reishi, Stinging Nettles

Anti-inflammatory – Reduces inflammation in the body. Examples: Aloe, American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Astragalus, Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Black Pepper, Blue Cohosh, Burdock, Calendula, Clove, Coltsfoot, Comfrey, Cumin, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elderberry & flower, Elecampane, False Unicorn, Fennel, Feverfew, Forsythia, Ginger, Ginkgo, Goldenseal, Gumweed, Honeysuckle, Hops, Horsetail, Jewelweed, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Licorice, Marshmallow, Mulberry, Mullein, Mugwort, Nettles, Nutmeg, Oyster Mushroom, Peppermint, Pine, Pleurisy Root, Poke, Queen Anne’s Lace, Red Clover, Reishi, Rose, Rosemary, Sage,  Saint John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto, Shepherd’s Purse, Slippery Elm, Solomon’s Seal, Thuja, Trillium, Turkey Tail, Usnea, Wild Yam, Willow, Yarrow

Antilipidemic – Herbs that promote a reduction of lipid levels in the blood. Examples include Oyster Mushroom

Antilithic – Herbs which work against the formation of calculi, such as kidney stones. Examples include Chamomile, Prunella, Queen Anne’s Lace, Stinging Nettles

Antimalarial – Preventing or relieving the symptoms of malaria. Examples:

Antimicrobial – Herbs that kill microorganisms or inhibits their growth. Examples:  Black Pepper, Calendula, Coriander, Eleuthero, Feverfew, Forsythia, Honeysuckle, Lavender, Mulberry leaf, Osha, Oyster Mushroom, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Turkey Tail, Usnea

Antimitotic – An herb capable of arresting the process of cell division. Examples include Ashwagandha, Bloodroot

Antimutagenic – Reduces or interferes with the mutagenic actions or effects of a substance. Examples include Green Tea, Black Pepper, Licorice, Oyster Mushroom, Rosemary

Antinematodal – Herbs that kill or repel nematodes. Examples include Oyster Mushroom

Antineoplastic – Herbs which inhibit or prevent the growth or development of malignant cells. Examples: Usnea, Dandelion, Oyster Mushroom

Antioxidant – Herbs that that may protect cells against the effects of free radicals. Examples: American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Astragalus, Black Pepper, Cacao, Clove, Coriander, Dandelion, Echinacea, Eleuthero, False Unicorn, Ginger, Ginkgo,  Honeysuckle, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Licorice, Motherwort, Mulberry,  Mullein, Mustard,  Nettles, Oyster Mushroom, Peppermint, Pine, Reishi,  Rosemary, Sage, Saint John’s Wort, Shepherd’s Purse, Slippery Elm, Turkey Tail, Usnea, Wild Ginger,

Antiparasitic – Herbs used for the treatment of parasitic diseases such as nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, and infectious protozoa.  See also antiprotozoal. Examples: Elecampane, Ginger, Goldenseal, Peppermint, Poke, Usnea

Antiphlogistic – The capacity to reduce or prevent inflammation. Examples include Ragweed

Antiproliferative – Herbs used to prevent or retard the spread of cells, especially malignant cells, into surrounding tissues. Examples include Ashwagandha

Antiprotozoal – Herbs used in treatment of protozoan infection. See also antiparasitic. Examples: Usnea

Antipyretic – Reduces or lowers fever. Examples include Maitake, Black Pepper, Forsythia, Wild Ginger

Antirheumatic – Herbs that alleviate or prevent rheumatism. Examples: Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Comfrey, Dandelion, Elderberry & flower, Gravel Root, Motherwort, Mugwort, Mulberry twig, Nettles, Osha, Poke, Queen Anne’s Lace, True Unicorn, Wild Yam, Willow

Antiscorbutic – Herbs that can prevent or cure scurvy. Examples include Pine, Nettles, Lemon, Shepherd’s Purse, elecampane

Antiseptic – Herbs that prevent infection by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. Examples include Bay Laurel, Black Pepper, Cardamom, Clove, Comfrey, Cumin, Echinacea, Elecampane, Eleuthero, Feverfew, Ginger, Goldenseal, Gravel Root,  Horsetail, Hops, Lavender, Licorice, Mugwort, Mulberry leaf, Mullein, Nutmeg, Peppermint, Pine, Queen Anne’s Lace, Ragweed, Red Clover, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Saint John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto, Shepherd’s Purse, Thuja, Trillium, Usnea, Willow, Yarrow

Antispasmodic – Relieves spasms in the body. Examples include American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Black Pepper, Blue Cohosh, Boneset, Cacao, Calendula, Cardamom, Catnip, Clove, Coltsfoot, Coriander, Crampbark, Cumin, Elderberry & flower, Elecampane, Fennel, Feverfew, Ginger, Goldenseal,  Gumweed, Honeysuckle, Hops, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Licorice, Marshmallow, Milky Oats, Motherwort, Mugwort, Mulberry twig, Mullein, Nettles,  Nutmeg, Osha, Peppermint, Pine, Pleurisy Root, Queen Anne’s Lace, Red Clover, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Saint John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto, Skullcap, Trillium, True Unicorn, Usnea, Valerian, Vitex, Wild Cherry, Wild Yam, Wood Betony, Yarrow

Antisudorific – Herbs that stop the secretion of sweat. Examples include Sage

Antithrombotic – Herbs that reduce the formation of blood clots (thrombi). Examples include Red Clover, Mulberry leaf

Antitumor – Preventing or inhibiting the formation or growth of tumors. Examples: Ashwagandha, Astragalus, Chaga, Echinacea, Honeysuckle, Licorice, Maitake, Mulberry leaf, Oyster Mushroom, Poke, Red Clover, Reishi, Shepherd’s Purse, Thuja, Turkey Tail, Usnea

Antitussive – Herbs that have the ability to suppress a cough. Examples: Black Cohosh, Burdock, Catnip, Coltsfoot, Elecampane, Fennel, Forsythia, Ginger, Licorice, Marshmallow, Red Clover, Reishi, Slippery Elm, Wild Ginger

Antiulcer – Preventing or inhibiting the formation or growth of ulcers. Examples include Speedwell

Antivenomous – Having the ability to neutralize venom in the body. Examples include Elecampane, Licorice, Mugwort, Mulberry leaf, Osha, Skullcap

Antiviral – Herbs that inhibit viral growth or kill viruses. Examples: American Ginseng, Astragalus, Bay Laurel, Cacao, Calendula,  Cardamom, Clove, Echinacea, Elderberry, Eleuthero, Forsythia, Ginger, Goldenseal, Honeysuckle, Lemon Balm, Licorice, Maitake, Mulberry leaf, Mullein, Osha, Oyster Mushroom, Peppermint, Pine, Poke, Prunella, Ragweed, Reishi, Rose, Saint John’s Wort, Spilanthes, Thuja, Turkey Tail, Usnea,

Anxiolytic – Herbs that help to reduce or prevent anxiety. Examples include American Ginseng, Saint John’s Wort, Valerian

Aperient – Herbs having a mild purgative or laxative effect. See also laxative. Examples include Boneset, Burdock, Cleavers, Dandelion, Fennel, Feverfew, Hops, Licorice, Queen Anne’s Lace, Red Clover, Saw Palmetto

Apex – Peak or summit; in botany, the top of the flower spike.

Aphrodisiac – Herbs that elevate, nourish and/or sustain intimacy and sensual desire. Examples include Ashwagandha, Burdock, Clove, Coriander, Ginger, Licorice, Marshmallow, Milky Oats, Rose, Wild Yam

Apiaceae – Also known as the Parsley family. Examples include Coriander, Cumin, Fennel, Queen Anne’s Lace, Osha

Appetite stimulant – Stimulates the appetite. Examples include Queen Anne’s Lace, True Unicorn

Aromatic – Plants with high volatile oil levels which smell strongly, stimulating the digestive system. Examples include Bay Laurel, Black Pepper, Cardamom, Catnip, Clove, Coriander, Elecampane, Fennel, Feverfew,  Ginger, Gumweed, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Mugwort, Nutmeg, Osha, Peppermint, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Saint John’s Wort, Valerian, Vitex, Wood Betony, Yarrow

Arteriosclerosis – a thickening and hardening of arterial walls in the arteries. Also referred to as artherosclerosis.

Arthritis – A form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints.

Asthma – A disorder that causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow, leading to wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

Astringent – Herbs that tend to shrink or constrict body tissues. Examples include Ashwagandha, Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Boneset, Cacao, Calendula, Cardamom, Catnip, Clove, Coltsfoot, Comfrey, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elderflower, Elecampane, False Unicorn, Forsythia, Gravel Root, Goldenseal, Honeysuckle, Hops, Horsetail, Jewelweed, Motherwort, Mugwort, Mullein, Nettles, Nutmeg, Pleurisy Root, Queen Anne’s Lace, Ragweed, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Saint John’s Wort, Shepherd’s Purse, Skullcap, Slippery Elm, Speedwell, Thuja, Trillium, Usnea, Valerian, Vitex, Wild Yam, Willow, Wood Betony, Yarrow

Atrophy – Gradual loss of muscle or flesh usually because of disease or lack of use.

Axillary – Growing at the base of the leaf stem.

Basal – Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base.

Basal rosette – Plants that grow out of the ground from a central source, with leaves growing in a circle around this base. Examples include Chicory, Dandelion, Burdock, Plantain, Shepherd’s Purse

Basidiocarp – The fruiting body of a fungi that produces spores.

Beak – A narrow or prolonged tip, protruding from the achene.

Berberidaceae family – A family of 18 genera of flowering plants commonly called the barberry family which includes Blue Cohosh, Barberry and Oregon Grape.

Biennial – Plants that take 2 years to complete their life cycle. The first year they grow leaves only, the second year they produce flowers, fruits and seeds. Examples include Burdock, Mullein, Queen Anne’s Lace

Bioavailability – the degree and rate at which a substance is absorbed into a living system or is made available at the site of physiological activity.

Biogenic stimulator – A substance that stimulates living organisms. Examples include Aloe, Comfrey

Bipinnate – Having the leaflets themselves divided into smaller leaflets.

Bitter – Having or being a taste that is sharp, acrid, and unpleasant; not sweet, salty or sour. Examples include Bay Laurel, Boneset, Clove, Coltsfoot, Dandelion, Elecampane, Eleuthero, Feverfew, Gentian, Goldenseal, Jamaican Dogwood, Lavender, Motherwort, Mugwort, Orange Peel, Osha, Poke, Reishi, Rosemary, Skullcap, Valerian, Willow, Wood Betony, Wormwood

Bitter tonic – Herbs that support the digestive system, boost immunity and promote overall vitality.

Blood tonic – Herbs that invigorate and nourish blood, while reinforcing the effects of iron and other nutrients. These herbs may reduce fatigue, enhance stamina and vitality, improve digestive function, ease nausea, relieve abdominal pain and cramps, improve nutrient uptake, promote healthy liver function and strengthen the immune system. Examples include Astragalus, Burdock, Milky Oats, Rose, Stinging Nettles

Boil – Another word for skin abscess, is a collection of pus that forms in the skin.

Bract – A modified leaf associated with a flower or inflorescence, that differs from other leaves in size, shape and color and does not have an axillary bud. Examples include Dandelion, Echinacea, Queen Anne’s Lace

Brain tonic – Herbs that tonify and support the brain. Examples include Milky Oats, Sage, Skullcap

Bronchi – The two large branches of the airway passage in the lungs.

Bronchioles – The smaller airway passages that branch off from the bronchi.

Bronchitis – Inflammation of the mucus membranes of the bronchi.

Bronchodilator – Herbs that dilate the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Also referred to as bronchial dilators. Examples: Black Cohosh, Cacao, Coltsfoot, Elecampane, New England Aster, Osha, Pleurisy Root, Trillium, Usnea

Bronchospasmolytic – Relieves bronchospasms. Examples include Gumweed

Calmative – Having a soothing effect. Examples include Calendula, Fennel

Calyx – The sepals of a flower, typically forming a whorl that encloses the petals and forms a protective layer around a flower in bud.

Cane – The stem of a raspberry, blackberry, certain roses, or similar plants.

Canescent – Covered with short, fine whitish or grayish hairs or down; hoary.

Canopy – The aboveground portion of a plant or grouping of plants, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns.

Carbuncle – A red, swollen, and painful cluster of boils that are connected to each other under the skin.

Cardiac stimulant – Stimulating to the heart. Examples include Blue Cohosh

Cardio-depressant – Herbs that slow the activity of the heart. Examples include Mullein

Cardioprotective – Herbs serving to protect the heart especially from heart disease. Examples include American Ginseng, Astragalus

Cardiotonic – Herbs that act as tonics to the heart, toning the muscle and the heart’s action. Examples: American Ginseng, Black Cohosh, Cacao, Dandelion,  Elecampane, Ginger, Hawthorn, Licorice, Motherwort, Red Clover, Reishi, Rose, Rosemary, Skullcap, Tilia,

Cardiovascular stimulant – Stimulating to the cardiovascular system. Examples include Coltsfoot

Carminative – Inducing the expulsion of gas from the stomach and intestines. Examples include American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Bay Laurel, Black Pepper, Boneset, Cardamom, Catnip, Clove, Coriander, Cumin, Echinacea, Elecampane, Fennel, Feverfew, Ginger, Gravel Root, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Mugwort, Mustard, Nettles, Nutmeg, Osha, Peppermint, Pleurisy Root, Queen Anne’s Lace, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, True Unicorn, Valerian, Wild Ginger, Wood Betony, Yarrow

Carpel – The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, a stigma, and usually a style. It may occur singly or as one of a group.

Carpellate flower – Flowers containing only the female reproductive parts.

Catarrh – A disorder of inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body.

Cathartic – Having purgative action. Examples include Bloodroot, Jewelweed, Pleurisy Root, Poke, True Unicorn

Catkins – A slim, cylindrical flower cluster, known as a spike, with inconspicuous or no petals, usually wind-pollinated but sometimes insect-pollinated, containing unisexual flowers hanging closely together, often drooping down from a central stem.

Caudex – Another name for a stem or rootstock of a plant, especially a basal stem structure from which new growth arises.

Cauliflory – Refers to plants which flower and fruit from their main stems or woody trunks rather than from new growth and shoots.

Cephalic – Pertaining to the head. Examples include Ginkgo, Rosemary

Cerebral tonic – Herbs that restore or tone the brain. Examples include Wood Betony

Cerebral vasodilator – Increases blood flow to the brain by widening the blood vessels through the relaxation of the smooth muscle cells within the vessels. Examples include Skullcap

Cerebral vasorelaxant – Causing a decrease in vascular pressure resulting in the reduction in tension of the blood vessel walls in the brain. Examples: Passionflower

Cerebrospinal trophorestorative – Herbs that are nourishing and restorative to both the physiological structure and function of the brain and spinal cord. Examples: True Unicorn

Chemoprotective – In the treatment of cancer, chemoprotective herbs are herbs which protect healthy tissue from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs. Examples include Eleuthero

Chi tonic – Herbs that help boost and maintain balance in the body’s energy system. Examples include American Ginseng, Astragalus, Licorice

Chicken pox – A highly contagious, airborne disease caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus often affecting children.

Cholagogue – Herbs that support the gall bladder and liver by promoting the flow of bile from the gall bladder into the intestines. Examples include Aloe, Burdock, Calendula, Cardamom, Dandelion, Elecampane, Goldenseal, Hops, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Mugwort, Nettles, Peppermint, Queen Anne’s Lace, Rosemary, Saint John’s Wort, Wild Yam, Yarrow

Cholera – An infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that causes diarrhea and vomiting.

Choleretic – Herbs that increase the volume of secretion of bile from the liver as well as the amount of solids secreted. Examples include Burdock, Dandelion, Eleuthero, False Unicorn, Forsythia, Ginger, Mugwort, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage

Circulatory stimulant – Promotes better circulation of blood from the trunk of the body to the periphery, thus warming the tissue, especially the hands and feet. Examples include Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Cayenne, Ginger, Ginkgo, Motherwort, Nettles, Nutmeg, Osha, Ragweed, Rosemary, Sage, Wood Betony, Yarrow

Circulatory tonic – Restores and/or increases tone to the circulatory system. Examples include Ginkgo

Circumscissile – Splitting or opening along a circumference, with the top coming off as a lid.

Cleistogamous (flowers) – Of or relating to a flower that does not open and is self-pollinated in the bud. Examples include Violet

Coarsely toothed leaf – Margins (edges) that have jagged, prominent edges. Examples include Dandelion

Cognitive enhancer –

Colitis – Inflammation of the colon (large intestine).

Coma – Filament hairs found on the seeds of Milkweed plants.

Complete flower – A flower that has both male and female parts for plant reproduction and contains all four plant parts: the sepal, petal, stamen and pistil or carpel. Also referred to as a perfect flower. Examples include Aloe

Compress – A piece of cloth soaked in a tea or infusion of herbs and applied to the affected area of the body.

Conifer – Any of various mostly needle-leaved or scale-leaved, chiefly evergreen, cone-bearing gymnospermous trees or shrubs of the order Coniferales, such as pines, spruces, and firs.

Conjunctivitis – The swelling (inflammation) or infection of the membrane lining the eyelids (conjunctiva).

Contraceptive – Herbs that prevent pregnancy. Examples include Ashwagandha, Queen Anne’s Lace

Corolla – The inner envelope of floral leaves of a flower, usually of delicate texture and of some color other than green; the group of flower petals collectively.

Corona – The hoods, horns and gynostegium of the Asclepias flower.

Corrigent – An Herb added to a medicine to mollify or modify its action, typically to balance a flavor. Examples include Coriander

Cortex – Outer layer (such as the skin of a root).

Corymbs – A flower cluster whose lower stalks are proportionally longer so that the flowers form a flat or slightly convex head.

Counterirritant – Creates inflammation in one location with the goal of lessening the inflammation in another location.  Examples include Cayenne

Crenate – Round-toothed or scalloped edges of leaves.

Croup – A condition that causes inflammation of the upper respiratory tract usually caused by a virus.

Cypselae – a dry, one-seeded achene fruit that is surrounded by a calyx sheath.

Deciduous – Plants that seasonally lose their leaves.

Decoction – A tea-like drink of herbs produced by boiling the herb in water.

Decongestant – Helps to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract. Examples: Dandelion, Elderberry & flower, Ginkgo, Goldenseal, Nettles, Queen Anne’s Lace, Rose, Saw Palmetto, Speedwell, Trillium

Decumbent – Plants which lye along the ground or along a surface, with the extremities curving upward.

Deltate (leaf) – Triangular in shape.

Demulcent – Herbs that form a soothing film over mucus membranes to relieve pain and minor inflammation of that area. Examples are Aloe, American Ginseng, Calendula, Coltsfoot, Comfrey, Gumweed, Licorice, Marshmallow, Milky Oats, Mullein, Pine, Queen Anne’s Lace, Slippery Elm, Solomon’s Seal, Wild Yam

Deobstruent – Having power to clear or open the natural ducts of the fluids and secretions of the body. Examples include Ashwagandha, Dandelion, Red Clover

Deodorant – A substance applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in the armpits, feet, and other areas of the body.

Depurative – Purifies or purgative for the blood. See also Alterative. Examples: Ashwagandha, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elderberry & flower, Honeysuckle, Nettles, Red Clover

Detergent – Herbs that contain saponins which act as natural purifiers and cleansers to help remove dirt from hair and body. Examples include Shepherd’s Purse, Soapwort

Detoxifying – Counteracts or destroys toxic properties. Examples include Solomon’s Seal

Diaphoretic – Promotes sweating, helpful for relieving a fever through perspiration. Examples include  Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Black Pepper, Blue Cohosh, Boneset, Burdock, Calendula, Cardamom, Catnip, Cleavers, Clove, Coltsfoot, Coriander, Echinacea, Elderberry & flower, Elecampane, Feverfew, Forsythia, Ginger, Gravel Root, Honeysuckle, Horsetail, Lemon Balm, Milky Oats, Motherwort, Mugwort, Mulberry leaf, Mustard, Osha, Peppermint, Pleurisy Root, Queen Anne’s Lace, Rosemary, Sage,  Speedwell, Valerian, Vitex, Wild Ginger, Wild Yam, Willow, Yarrow

Digestive – Aids in digestion. Examples include American Ginseng, Astragalus, Catnip, Clove, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elderberry & flower, Elecampane, False Unicorn, Fennel, Ginger, Goldenseal, Lavender, Mugwort, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Saint John’s Wort, Turkey Tail, Willow, Yarrow

Digestive restorative – Herbs that restore the digestive system back to health. Examples include False Unicorn

Dioecious – Having the male and female reproductive organs on separate plants (of the same species) rather than different parts of the same plant. Examples include Bay Laurel, Nutmeg, Willow

Diphtheria – An acute infection caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

Discoid – Shaped like a disc, pertaining to the shape of a flower head.

Discutient – An agent or process that disperses a tumor or lesion. Examples include Dandelion (sap), Elderberry & flower, Dandelion

Disk flower – A tubular flower in the disk (central) section of an Asteraceae flowerhead. Also known as a disc flower.

Disinfectant – An herb that destroys bacteria. Examples include Mugwort

Diuretic – Stimulates the flow of urine. Examples include American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Astragalus, Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Bloodroot, Blue Cohosh, Burdock, Cacao, Cardamom, Cleavers, Clove, Coriander, Cumin, Dandelion, Jamaican Dogwood, Elderberry & flower, Elecampane, False Unicorn, Fennel, Feverfew, Forsythia, Gravel Root, Goldenseal, Gumweed, Honeysuckle, Hops, Horsetail, Jewelweed, Lavender, Marshmallow, Milky Oats, Mulberry rt bark & leaf, Mullein, Mustard, Nettle, Osha, Peppermint, Pleurisy Root, Pine, Poke, Red Clover, Rose, Rosemary, Motherwort, Maitake, Mugwort, Queen Anne’s Lace, Saint John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto, Shepherd’s Purse, Skullcap, Slippery Elm, Solomon’s Seal, Speedwell, True Unicorn, Valerian, Vitex, Wild Ginger, Wild Yam, Willow, Wood Betony, Yarrow

Double extraction – An herbal preparation made by extracting, and preserving, the active properties of herbs by first using alcohol then adding the strained herbs to water to create a decoction. Once both steps have been taken, the alcohol extract and water decoction are combined.

Drug synergist – The joint action of herbs working with pharmaceuticals to increase the effectiveness of the pharmaceuticals. Examples: Usnea

Drupe –  A fleshy fruit with thin skin and a central stone containing the seed. Examples include Plum, Cherry, Almond, Olive, Bay Laurel, Avocado

Drupelet- A small drupe, usually one of a number forming a compound fruit. Examples of drupelets are Blackberries, Dewberries and Raspberries.

Dysentery – An inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that results in severe diarrhea, accompanied by fever and abdominal pain usually caused by an infection.

Dysmenorrhea – Medical term for menstrual cramps.

Dyspepsia – The medical term for indigestion.

Elaiosomes – Fleshy structures that are attached to the seeds of many plant species.

Elixir – Herbal extract made with herbs, alcohol (generally brandy) and honey.

Elliptical leaf – A leaf which is oval in shape, broadest in width at the middle and tapering at both edges.

Emetic – Herbs that cause vomiting. Examples include: Ashwagandha, Boneset, Bloodroot, Honeysuckle, Jewelweed, Lobelia, Mustard, Pleurisy Root, Poke, True Unicorn, Wild Ginger,

Emmenagogue – Stimulates blood flow in the pelvic area; can bring on menstruation. Examples include Aloe, Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Bloodroot, Blue Cohosh, Catnip, Clove, Cumin, Elecampane, False Unicorn, Feverfew, Forsythia, Ginger, Gravel Root, Lemon Balm, Motherwort, Mugwort, Osha, Peppermint, Queen Anne’s Lace, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Shepherd’s Purse, Skullcap, Thuja, Trillium, True Unicorn, Vitex, Yarrow

Emollient – Herbs that sooth and protect the skin when applied externally. They help heal inflamed or irritated mucous membranes when taken internally. Examples include Aloe, Burdock, Cacao, Coltsfoot, Comfrey, Elderflower, Elecampane, Marshmallow, Milky Oats, Mullein, Slippery Elm, Solomon’s Seal, Violet, Dandelion, Jewelweed, Licorice

Endocrine tonic – Herbs that restore balance to the endocrine system. Examples include American Ginseng, Goldenseal, Milky Oats, Nettles

Energizer – Herbs that have an energizing effect on the body. Examples include Cardamom

Entire margin – Leaves with smooth, non-toothed edges.

Ergogenic – Herbs intended to enhance physical performance, stamina, or recovery. Examples include Eleuthero

Escharotic – An herb that causes tissue to die and slough off. Examples include Bloodroot

Estrogenic – Herbs that promote or produce estrus. Examples include False Unicorn, Queen Anne’s Lace

Evergreen perennial – A perennial that retains its foliage year round. Examples include Aloe, Bay Laurel, Clove, Fir, Juniper, Nutmeg, Pine, Spruce, Thuja

Expectorant – Promotes and facilitates the discharge of mucus and fluids from the respiratory tract. Examples: Black Cohosh, Black Pepper, Boneset, Burdock, Cacao, Cardamom, Clove, Coltsfoot, Comfrey, Elderberry & flower, Elecampane, Fennel, Ginger, Gumweed, Honeysuckle, Lavender, Licorice, Marshmallow, Mugwort, Mulberry rt. bark, leaf, Mullein, Mustard, Nettles, Osha, Peppermint, Pine, Pleurisy Root, Poke, Red Clover, Reishi, Rose, Sage, Saint John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto, Slippery Elm, Speedwell,Thuja, Trillium, Usnea, Vitex, Wild Ginger, Wild Yam, Yarrow

Extract – Also referred to as tincture. Preparations made by extracting, and preserving, the active properties of herbs using alcohol. See also Tincture.

Extrafloral nectaries – Nectar producing glands located on leaves, petioles, flower buds, bracts, and/or stems. Examples are Passionflower, Peony, Wild Cherry

Febrifuge – Herbs that reduce fever. Examples include American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Bloodroot, Boneset, Burdock, Catnip, Cleavers, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elderflower, Feverfew, Forsythia, Ginger, Goldenseal, Honeysuckle, Hops, Lemon Balm, Licorice, Milky Oats, Nettles, Osha, Ragweed, Sage, Shepherd’s Purse, Skullcap, Usnea, Valerian, Vitex, Wild Ginger, Willow, Yarrow

Fermentation – A metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. Often referred to as fermented.

Fibrous roots – Root system that contains numerous roots of all the same thickness

Flavonoids – A group of plant metabolites thought to provide health benefits through cell signaling pathways and antioxidant effects. Flavonoids are plant pigments that provide the more vibrant, brilliant colors in nature, including most of the blue, purple and emerald green tones found in flowers, leaves, fruits and vegetables as well as most of the yellow, orange and red colors that are not carotenoids. Flavonoids are predominantly water soluble. Examples include Motherwort, Blueberry, Blackberry, Raspberry, Elderberry, Cranberry, Hawthorn

Floricanes – The flowering and fruiting stem of a biennial plant, especially of a bramble. Examples include Blackberry and Raspberry.

Flower essence – A substance prepared from a flowering plant and used therapeutically for its beneficial effects on mood, outlook, etc.

Follicle – A  dry unilocular fruit formed from one carpel, containing two or more seeds.

Galactagogue – Increases the milk supply in a lactating woman. Examples include Burdock, Cumin, Dandelion, Elderflower, Fennel, Fenugreek, Hops, Licorice, Marshmallow, Red Clover, Saw Palmetto, Stinging Nettles, Vitex

Gamete – The cells that fuse together during sexual reproduction to form a new organism.

Gametophyte – The life stage of a plant that produces gametes.

Glabrous – Free from hair or down; smooth.

Glandular deobstruent – Herbs that remove obstructions in the glands by opening up the ducts in the body.  Examples include Goldenseal

Glycosides – A molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides are generally soluble in water and alcohol. Examples include Motherwort, Gentian, Hawthorn, Rhubarb, Licorice, Milk Thistle

Gynostegium – The fused reproductive parts of a flower.

Hemorrhaging – Excessive discharge of blood from the blood vessels; profuse bleeding.

Hemorrhoids – Painful, swollen veins in the lower portion of the rectum or anus.

Hemostatic – Works to slow or stop bleeding or hemorrhaging. Examples include Cayenne, Elecampane, Goldenseal, Horsetail, Marshmallow, Motherwort, Mugwort, Nettles, Plantain, Rose, Ragweed, Shepherd’s Purse, Speedwell, Thuja, Trillium, Yarrow

Hepatic – Acts on the liver. Examples include Burdock, Dandelion, Elecampane, Oregon Grape Root, Rose, Yarrow

Hepatoprotective – Herbs that protect and prevent damage to the liver. Examples: American Ginseng, Astragalus, Black Pepper, Cacao,  Forsythia, Ginger, Ground Ivy,  Licorice, Maitake, Milk Thistle, Oyster Mushroom, Reishi, Turkey Tail,

Hepatotonic – Herbs that cleanse, build and restore the liver. Examples include Wood Betony

Hepatotoxic – Being injurious to the liver.

Herbaceous – Plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.

Herbal Energetics – HE are the study of the plants energies, which give us insight on how plants work to heal us. By looking at the tastes, heating, cooling and digestive effects and other potencies each plant possesses, we can better understand how to apply them for medicinal use.

Hood – A petaloid appendage that grows from the filament of a stamen.

Hormone balancer – Herbs that help to bring hormones back into balance. Examples include Willow

Hormone stimulant – Herbs that help to stimulate hormones. Examples include Sage

Hormone tonic – Herbs that help to nourish, tone and support the hormones. Examples include Ashwagandha

Horn – An appendage on the hood of a stamen.

Hypertensive – Herbs that increase blood pressure. Examples include Goldenseal, Licorice, Rosemary

Hypnotic – Calming to the point of inducing sleep. Examples include Ashwagandha, Dandelion, Hops, Mullein, Poke, Valerian, Willow

Hypocholesterolemic – Herbs that facilitate the lowering of cholesterol in the body. Examples include Eleuthero, False Unicorn, Licorice, Speedwell, Queen Anne’s Lace, Oyster Mushroom

Hypoglycemic – Lowers content of glucose in the blood. Examples include American Ginseng, Astragalus, Black Cohosh, Cinnamon, Nettles, Ginger, Eleuthero, Wood Betony, Licorice, Oyster Mushroom, Queen Anne’s Lace,

Hypotensive – Reduces blood pressure. Examples:  American Ginseng, Astragalus, Black Cohosh, Cleavers, Dandelion, Ground Ivy, Gumweed, Honeysuckle, Lemon Balm, Maitake, Motherwort, Mulberry twig/rt. bark & leaf, Osha, Oyster Mushroom, Reishi, Shepherd’s Purse, Skullcap, Turkey Tail, Valerian, Wood Betony, yarrow

Immune tonic – Herbs that help to nourish, tone and support the immune system. Examples include American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Cleavers, Licorice, Marshmallow

Immunomodulator – Herbs that balance the immune system, stimulating a suppressed immune system and suppressing an over-stimulated immune system.  Examples: American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Elderberry, Eleuthero, Licorice, Oyster Mushroom, Reishi, Turkey Tail,

Immunostimulant – Stimulates the immune system. Also known as immune stimulant. Examples: Bay Laurel, Black Pepper, Boneset, Calendula, Coltsfoot, Comfrey, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elecampane, Forsythia, Gravel Root, Motherwort, Maitake, Osha, Poke, Reishi, Spilanthes, Usnea

Inferior ovary – The leaves and sepals are above the ovary.

Inflorescence – The complete flower head of a plant including stems, stalks, bracts, and flowers.

Infused oil – Steeping a dried herb in an oil such as olive oil under low heat conditions to extract the medicinal uses from the herb into the oil. This is not an essential oil.

Infusion – A medicinal remedy made by boiling water, pouring it over herbs and letting it steep for 1 – 8 hours.

Insulinotrophic – Restoring and nourishing the production and activity of insulin. Examples include Eleuthero

Internodes – A part of a plant stem between two of the nodes.

Kidney tonic – Restores or increases tone in the kidneys. Examples include Nettle seed, Rose, Cordyceps, Dandelion, Ragweed, Cacao, Cardamom, Horsetail

Lamiaceae family – Also known as the mint family.

Lanceolate – Shaped like the head of a lance.

Laxative – Herbs used to produce bowel movements. See also aperient. Examples include Aloe, Ashwagandha, Boneset, Burdock, Dandelion,Elderberry & flower,  Fennel, Forsythia, Green Tea, Goldenseal, Honeysuckle, Licorice (mild), Marshmallow, Milky Oats, Motherwort, Mulberry, Mustard, Rose, Slippery Elm

Leaf Axil – The angle between the upper side of a leaf or stem and the stem or branch that supports it.

Lenticels – Small, corky, oval or elongated areas on the surface of a plant stem, trunk, or fruit that allow the interchange of gases between the interior tissue and the surrounding air.

Lignicolous – Fungi that grow on wood and cause it to decay.

Liniment – A topical preparation for application to the skin.

Lithotriptic – Herbs that help dissolve calculus. Examples include Chamomile, Cleavers, Dandelion, Gravel Root, Hops, Horsetail, Nettles, Speedwell

Lobed leaves – a leaf having deeply indented margins (edges). Examples include Oak, Chicory, Ginkgo, Sassafras, Shepherd’s Purse

Lung tonic – Herbs that restore or increase tone to the lungs. Examples include Comfrey, Elecampane, Licorice, Marshmallow

Lymphatic – Herbs that deep clean and improve the flow of lymph through the body system. Examples include Calendula, Cleavers, Poke, Red Root

Margins – The edges of leaves.

Melanthiaceae family – Family that Trillium belongs to.

Memory Enhancer – Herbs that help to improve the function of memory. Examples include Sage

Menorrhagia  – Unusually long and heavy menstrual cycles.

Mericarp – One carpel or part of the fruit (schizocarp) of an umbelliferous plant.

Molluscidal – An herb that kills mollusks (mainly snails and slugs). Examples include Poke

Moxa – A downy substance obtained from the dried leaves of Mugwort.

Moxibustion – The burning of moxa on or near a person’s skin as a counterirritant.

Mucogenic – Promotes the formation of mucus. Examples include Solomon’s Seal

Mucilaginous – Herbs which contain polysaccharides which give them a slippery texture and mild taste, are soothing and cooling and are often used topically. Examples include American Ginseng, Marshmallow, Mullein, Plantain, Slippery Elm

Mucolytic – Herbs that make the mucus (sputum), which is made in your lungs, less thick and sticky and easier to cough up. Examples include Catnip, Fennel, Osha, Stinging Nettles

Mucus membrane tonic – Herbs that tone and restore balance to the mucus membranes. Examples include Goldenseal

Muscle building tonic – Helps to build muscle tone. Examples include Saw Palmetto, Blackberry, Raspberry

Muscle relaxant – Herbs that act on the brain to cause an overall sedative effect on the muscles rather than acting directly on the muscle, helping muscle contraction to cease. Herbs include Black Cohosh, Hops

Mycelium – The vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae (filaments).

Narcotic – An herb capable of inducing a state of stuporous analgesia. Examples include Ashwagandha (leaf), Poke, Poppy, True Unicorn

Nephroprotective – Herbs that help to preserve kidney function, esp. when the kidneys are exposed to unusual or unique stresses. Examples include Astraglus, Nettles (seeds)

Nerve relaxant – Herbs that have a relaxing effect on the nervous system. Herbs include Yarrow

Nervine – Having a beneficial effect on the nervous system. Examples include American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Blue Cohosh, Catnip, Coriander, Feverfew, Gravel Root, Hops, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Milky Oats, Motherwort, Mugwort, Mullein, Nettles, Oats, Oyster Mushroom, Passionflower, Peppermint, Pleurisy Root, Queen Anne’s Lace, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, St. John’s Wort, Skullcap, Solomon’s Seal, Valerian, Wood Betony

Nervous system tonic – Herbs that support, strengthen and tonify the nervous system. Examples include Milky Oats, Skullcap, Valerian

Neuroprotective – Protects neurons from injury or degeneration. Examples include Eleuthero, Ginkgo

Node – The part of a plant stem from which one or more leaves emerge, often forming a slight swelling or knob.

Nootropic – Herbs that help to improve or preserve memory, stimulate learning or prevent cognitive decline or dementia. Examples include American Ginseng

Nutritive – Herbs that nourish the body. Examples include American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Burdock, Cacao, Chickweed, Cleavers, Comfrey, Dandelion, Horsetail, Kelp, Licorice, Marshmallow, Milky Oats, Mulberry,  Nettles, Oatstraw, Red Clover, Saw Palmetto,  Slippery Elm, Solomon’s Seal, Violet,  Yellow Dock, Wild Yam

Oblong – Leaves that are at least twice as long as they are wide.

Obtuse – A blunt or rounded tip of a leaf.

Odontalgic – A remedy for toothaches. Examples include Bloodroot, Clove, Echinacea, Spilanthes, Yarrow

Ointment – A remedy that is rubbed on the skin to help heal a wound or to reduce pain or discomfort.

Oneirogen – Any substance, practice, or experience that promotes or enhances dream states. Examples include Mugwort

Ophthalmic – Pertaining to the eye. Examples include Fennel, Rosemary, Vitex

Orthopedic aid – Herbs assisting in bone healing. Examples include Comfrey, Boneset, Horsetail

Ovate (leaf) – An egg-shaped leaf with the broader end at the base.

Ovoid – Egg-shaped fruit.

Oxytocic – Herbs that stimulate contractions of the uterus. Examples include Goldenseal, Shepherd’s Purse

Palmately compound (leaf) – A leaf with leaflets that originate from a common point at the end of the petiole.

Panicle – A much-branched inflorescence.

Pappus – The modified calyx, composed of bristles, located at the apex (top) of the achene that acts as a parachute for the achene. Examples include Dandelion, Milk Thistle

Parturient – Brings on labor, assists with birth. Examples include Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Motherwort, Stinging Nettles, True Unicorn, Yarrow

Pectoral – Herbs that tonify and strengthen the pulmonary system. Examples of pectorals include Coltsfoot, Licorice, Marshmallow, Mullein, Nettles, Osha, Slippery Elm, Violet, Wild Cherry,

Pedicel – A stem that attaches a single flower to the inflorescence.

Peduncle –A stem supporting an inflorescence.

Perennial – Plants that die back to the roots after a complete growing cycle and return from the roots the next growing season. Examples include Dandelion, Echinacea, Lavender, Rose, Goldenrod

Perfect flower – A flower that has both male and female parts for plant reproduction and contains all four plant parts: the sepal, petal, stamen and pistil or carpel. Also referred to as a complete flower.

Perianth – Outer portion of the flower. Also referred to as tepals.

Pertussis – A highly contagious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetalla pertussis. Commonly known as whooping cough.

Petiole – The stalk or stem of a leaf or flower.

Phytoandrogenic – Herbs that produce chemicals that are similar in effect to testosterone in animals. Examples include American Ginseng

Phytoestrogenic – Plants containing phytoestrogens, weak hormones found in many plants. Examples include Licorice, Red Clover, Sage, Saw Palmetto

Pinnately compound (leaves) – Leaflets that are attached along an extension of the petiole called a rachis; if there is a terminal leaflet, an odd number of leaflets exist, giving it the name odd-pinnate.

Pinnate leaves – The arrangement of feather-like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis.

Pinnatifid leaves – Leaves that are cleft nearly to the midrib in broad divisions not separated into distinct leaflets.

Pinnatisect (leaf) – Deep opposite lobed leaves

Pistil – The female organs of a flower, comprising the stigma, style, and ovary.

Pistilliferous flower – The female flower.

Pith – Soft or spongy tissue sometimes found in the center of plant stems.

Plantaginaceae – The Plantain family which contains plants such as Plantago, Digitalis, Veronica, Collinsia, and Bacopa.

Pneumonia – Inflammation of the lungs primarily affecting the microscopic air sacs (alveoli). It can be caused by a virus or bacteria, microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune disease.

Polypore – A group of fungi that form fruiting bodies with pores or tubes on the underside.

Pore – A small pore in the outer wall of a fungal spore through which the germ tube exits upon germination.

Poultice – A soft, moist mass of herb, often heated and applied directly over the skin or on top of a thin cloth to treat aches, inflammation or painful areas to heal and reduce pain.

Pro-apoptotic – Herbs that encourage cell destruction of cancerous cells. Examples include False Unicorn

Prolapse – From the Latin word prolabi meaning to fall out. A condition where organs fall out of place.

Prostatic – Supportive of the prostate. Examples include Nettles, Saw Palmetto, Queen Anne’s Lace

Pubescent – Fine, downy hairs on leaves

Pungent – Having a strong taste or smell. Examples include Bay Laurel, Marjoram, Rosemary, Thyme, Lavender, Ginger, Angelica, Fennel, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Anise, Prickly Ash, Cayenne, Garlic

Purgative – A strong laxative. Examples include Aloe, Elderflower, Dandelion, Aloe, Feverfew, Mugwort, Poke

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids – A defense mechanism created by plants to protect them from insects, which are also sometimes called necine bases and are a group of naturally occurring alkaloids which can cause damage to the liver. Examples include Boneset, Coltsfoot, Comfrey

Quadripartite – Consisting of four parts.

Raceme – A flower cluster with the separate flowers attached by short equal stalks at equal distances along a central stem.

Rachis – An extension of a petiole in a pinnately compound leaf.

Radioprotective – Herbs which protect or aid in protecting against the injurious effect of radiations. Examples include Eleuthero

Ray flower – A marginal flower of the head in an Asteraceae flowerhead that also has disk flowers or the entire head of an Asteraceae flowerhead that has no disk flowers. Examples include Calendula, Chicory, Daisy (outer white petals), Dandelion, Elecampane, Gumweed, Wild Lettuce

Raynaud’s phenomenon – A condition in which cold temperatures or strong emotions cause blood vessel spasms which blocks blood flow to the fingers, toes, ears, and nose.

Refrigerant – Herbs that cool the body from the inside out, reducing heat in the body. Examples include Catnip, Cleavers, Comfrey, Honeysuckle, Mulberry, Peppermint, Rose

Regenerative – Herbs that have the ability to regenerate, restore or renew tissue in the body. Examples include Comfrey, Turkey Tail

Rejuvenative – Restore to youthful vigor, appearance, etc. Examples: Aloe, American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Burdock, Elderberry & flower, Elecampane, Ginkgo, Horsetail, Lemon Balm, Licorice, Marshmallow, Milky Oats, Nettles, Reishi, Rosemary, Saw Palmetto, Slipper Elm, Wild Yam

Relaxant – Calming and soothing without being sedating; the act of relaxing contracted tissues. Examples include Boneset, Feverfew, Nutmeg, Oyster Mushroom, Queen Anne’s Lace, Solomon’s Seal

Reproductive amphoteric – Normalizes reproductive function. Examples include Saw Palmetto

Reproductive tonic – Herbs that tonify the reproductive system to help restore balance. Examples include Milky Oats, Wild Yam

Resinous – A thick, sticky substance that is secreted from a plant.

Resins – A hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, that are sticky and harden. Resins are insoluble in water but extract well in alcohol and hot oil. Examples include Pine, Gumweed, Calendula, Rosemary, Motherwort

Respiratory stimulant – Herbs that are stimulating to the respiratory system. Examples include Coltsfoot

Restorative – Herbs that restore the body to health. Examples include Alfalfa, American Ginseng, Astragalus, Dandelion, Elderberry & flower, Eleuthero, False Unicorn, Goldenseal, Milky Oats, Nettles,  Queen Anne’s Lace, Saint John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto, Skullcap, Slippery Elm, Solomon’s Seal, Speedwell, Valerian, Violet, Vitex, Wild Yam

Rheumatism – A non-specific term for medical problems affecting the joints and connective tissue.

Rhizomes – Continuously growing horizontal underground stems that put out lateral shoots and adventitious roots at intervals.

Rosacea – A chronic skin condition that makes the face and/or turn red and may cause swelling and skin sores that look like acne.

Rubefacient – Herbs for topical application that produces redness of the skin e.g. by causing dilation of the capillaries and an increase in blood circulation. Examples include Black Pepper, Cayenne, Clove, Ginger, Lavender, Mustard, Pine, Rosemary

Rudimentary stamen – undeveloped stamen.

Salve – A mixture of oils and hardening agent such as beeswax used to promote healing of the skin or as protection.

Scale-like leaves – Slender, narrow bladed leaves.

Scrofula – A tuberculosis infection of the lymph nodes in the neck.

Scurvy – a disease that occurs when one has a severe lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in their diet. Scurvy causes general weakness, anemia, gum disease, and skin hemorrhages.

Sedative – Herbs that tend to calm, moderate, or tranquilize nervousness or excitement. Examples include Ashwagandha, Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Bloodroot, California Poppy, Catnip, Coltsfoot, Dandelion, Gumweed, Hops, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Licorice, Motherwort, Mulberry rt. bark, Mullein, Nutmeg, Red Clover, Rose, Saint John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto, Skullcap, True Unicorn, Valerian, Vitex, Willow, Wood Betony,

Sepals – Part of a flower that encloses the flower and supports the petals while blooming.

Septa – The fleshy partition inside the fruit.

Serrated – Toothed, saw-like shaped edges on leaves.

Sessile –  A characteristic of plants whose flowers or leaves are borne directly from the stem or peduncle, and thus lack a petiole or pedicel. Examples include Trillium, Solomon’s Seal, St. John’s Wort, Cleavers, upper leaves of Chicory.

Shrub – Preparation made with herbal syrup and herbal vinegar combined together, typically at equal proportions to be mixed with seltzer or sparkling water.

Sialogogue – Herbs that increase the flow of saliva. Examples include American Ginseng, Cardamom, Echinacea, Ginger, Licorice, Spilanthes, True Unicorn

Schizocarp – A dry fruit composed of multiple carpels that separate.

Silique – A fruit or seed capsule containing 2 fused carpels with the length being more than three times the width.

Simple – A leaf that has only one leaflet on the leaf stem.

Smooth muscle relaxant – Herbs that relax smooth muscles of the body such as the heart, stomach, intestinal, blood vessels, and bladder. Examples include Valerian

Smudge – A method of burning herbs such as Sage, Mugwort or Cedar for purification, ritual and cleansing.

Soporific – Herbs that induce sleep or drowsiness. Examples include Hops

Spatulate – Leaves with a broad, rounded apex and a narrow base. Examples include Calendula

Spike (flower) – A type of flower arrangement (referred to as an inflorescence) that has taller-than-average flower, usually on an unbranched axis, which is directly attached to the plant without any stalks.

Spinal cord tonic – Herbs that support, strengthen and tone the spinal cord. Examples include Skullcap

Spire – The stalk or stem of a plant.

Spit poultice – Simple poultice made by chewing a fresh leaf and applying it directly to a wound.

Spleen tonic – Herbs that tone and restore balance to the spleen. Examples include Goldenseal

Sporangiophores – A stalk bearing one or more sporangia

Sporangium/sporangia – An enclosure in which spores are formed.

Spore – A reproductive body, produced by bacteria, fungi, various plants, and some protozoans, that develops into a new individual.

Sporophyte – The life stage of a plant that produces spores.

Solanaceae – Family commonly referred to as the Nightshade family. Members include Ashwagandha, Belladonna, Cayenne, Eggplant, Potato, Tomatillo, Tomato,

Stamen – The male fertilizing organ of a flower, typically consisting of a pollen-containing anther and a filament.

Staminate flower –Flowers containing only the male reproductive parts.

Staminiferous flower – The male flower.

Stimulant – Energizes a system of the body. Examples include American Ginseng, Bay Laurel, Black Pepper, Bloodroot, Boneset, Cacao, Cardamom, Clove, Coriander, Cumin, Elderflower (mild), Elecampane, Eleuthero, Feverfew, Ginger, Goldenseal, Gravel Root, Lavender, Mustard, Nutmeg, Peppermint, Pine, Queen Anne’s Lace, Ragweed, Rosemary, Saw Palmetto, Thuja, Yarrow

Stipules – One of the usually small, paired appendages at the base of a leafstalk in certain plants. Examples include Rose, Nettles, Passionflower

Stomach tonic – Herbs that restore and tone the stomach. Examples include Goldenseal

Stomachic – Herbs that tone the stomach, improving its function and increasing appetite. Examples include Bay Laurel, Cardamom, Catnip, Clove, Coriander, Dandelion, Elecampane, Fennel, Ginger, Goldenseal, Gumweed, Hops, Lemon Balm, Motherwort, Mugwort, Nutmeg, Osha, Peppermint, Rosemary, Skullcap, Speedwell, True Unicorn, Valerian, Vitex, Yarrow

Striated – Having lines, grooves, furrows or other streaked marks.

Strobilus – A cone-like structure on the tip of a plant.

Styptic – Stops bleeding by constricting tissue and blood vessels. Examples include Comfrey, Goldenseal, Horsetail, Mulberry leaf, Nettles, Plantain, Ragweed, Saint John’s Wort, Shepherd’s Purse, Wood Betony, Yarrow,

Succulent – Plants that have parts that are abnormally thickened and fleshy, generally because they are growing in arid climates or soil conditions and retaining water. Examples include Aloe, Hen and Chicks, Jewelweed, Prickly Pear, Vanilla

Sudorific – Herbs that induce sweating. Examples include Hops, Yarrow

Superior ovary – An ovary attached to the receptacle above the attachment of other floral parts.

Tannins – Naturally occurring polyphenols found in plants, seeds, bark, wood, leaves and fruit skins. Tannins are soluble in water and glycerin but are bound up and become inactive when added to milk, and may make some alkaloids inactive. Tannins are used to ease pain, speed wound healing and reduce or stop bleeding and swelling. Examples include Motherwort, Oak, Prunella, Witch Hazel

Tap root – A straight tapering root growing vertically downward and forming the center from which smaller side rootlets grow. Examples include Dandelion, Burdock, Chicory, Shepherd’s Purse, Queen Anne’s Lace

Terete – Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges.

Terminal – Flowers that are situated at the top of the plant. Examples include Queen Anne’s Lace

Thermogenic – Increases the caloric burn rate. Herbs include Cayenne

Thyroid tonic – Herbs that restore or increase thyroid function. Examples include Saw Palmetto, Nettles, Kelp

Thyrse – A branching flower cluster, in which the central axis is indeterminate and the lateral branches are determinate cymes.

Tincture – Also referred to as extract. Preparations made by extracting, and preserving, the active properties of herbs using alcohol. See also Extract.

Tomentose – Covered with densely matted woolly hairs.

Tonic – Herbs that restore or increase body tone. Examples include American Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Astragalus, Bay Laurel, Bloodroot, Blue Cohosh, Boneset, Cardamom, Catnip,  Cleavers, Coltsfoot, Comfrey, Coriander, Echinacea, Elderberry & flower, False Unicorn, Feverfew, Gravel Root, Horsetail, Lavender, Licorice, Maitake, Milky Oats, Motherwort, Mulberry, Nettles, Oats, Peppermint, Pine, Ragweed, Raspberry, Sage, Solomon’s Seal, Speedwell, True Unicorn, Valerian, Willow, Yarrow

Toothed leaves – Margins (edges) of leaves that are jagged. Examples include Blackberry, Chicory, Dandelion, Nettles, Rose

Torus – The expanded tip of a flower stalk or axis that bears the floral organs or the group of flowers in a head. Also known as a receptacle.

Trichome – A hair or hair-like outgrowth on the stems and leaves of plants.

Trifoliate – Having three leaflets.

Tripinnate (leaf) – Bipinnate, with the divisions also pinnate. Examples include Queen Anne’s Lace

Trophorestorative – Herbs that are nourishing and restorative to both the physiological structure and function of an organ, system or tissue.  Examples include Goldenseal, Hawthorn, Nettles, Oats, Skullcap

Tuberculosis – An infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium tuberculosis that affects the lungs but can affect other organs as well.

Tubular corolla – The inner envelope of floral leaves of a flower, usually of delicate texture and of some color other than green; the group of flower petals collectively, shaped to form a tube. Examples include Aloe

Typhoid – An infection commonly caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi that causes diarrhea and a rash.

Umbel – An inflorescence in which a number of flower stalks or pedicels, nearly equal in length, spread from a common center. Examples include Queen Anne’s Lace

Urinary antiseptic – Herbs that prevent infection in the urinary tract by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. Examples include Shepherd’s Purse, Yarrow

Urinary decongestant – Herbs that decrease congestion in the urinary system. Examples include Yarrow

Urogenital system – The combination of the reproduction organs and urinary system.

Uterine relaxant – Herbs that help to relax the uterus. Examples include Ashwagandha

Uterine restorative – Herbs that restore the uterine to health. Examples include False Unicorn, Trillium

Uterine stimulant – Energizes the uterus. Examples include Mugwort, Stinging Nettles, Nettles, Trillium, Wild Ginger, Yarrow

Uterine tonic – Herbs that tone the uterus or increase uterine function. Examples include Black Haw, Blue Cohosh, Crampbark, False Unicorn, Motherwort, Raspberry, Rose, Saw Palmetto, Trillium, True Unicorn, Wild Yam

Uterine trophorestorative – Herbs that are nourishing and restorative to both the physiological structure and function of the uterus. Examples include False Unicorn

Varicose veins – swollen, twisted, and sometimes painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood.

Vasoconstrictor – Herbs that cause contraction of muscle cells in the walls of blood vessels, narrowing their internal diameter and raising blood pressure. Examples include Goldenseal, Shepherd’s Purse

Vasodilator – Herbs that widen blood vessels and help prevent high blood pressure. Examples include  Astragalus, Bay Laurel, Black Cohosh, Black Pepper, Elderberry & flower, Feverfew, Ginkgo, Hawthorn, Lemon Balm, Motherwort, Osha, Peppermint, Pleurisy Root, Sage, Usnea, Wild Yam, Yarrow

Vasorelaxant – Causing a decrease in vascular pressure resulting in the reduction in tension of the blood vessel walls. Examples:

Vermifuge – Herbs that expel parasitic worms and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. Also known as anthelmintic. Examples include Clove, Cumin, False Unicorn, Feverfew, Ginger, Mugwort, Sage, Saint John’s Wort, Stinging Nettles, Willow, Wormwood

Vertigo –  A subtype of dizziness in which a patient inappropriately experiences the perception of motion (usually a spinning motion) due to dysfunction of the vestibular system.  It is often associated with nausea and vomiting as well as a balance disorder, causing difficulties with standing or walking.

Vulnerary – Has wound healing properties. Examples include Aloe, Bay Laurel, Calendula, Cleavers, Comfrey, Dandelion, Echinacea, Elderflower, Elecampane, Goldenseal, Gumweed, Honeysuckle, Horsetail, Jewelweed, Lavender, Marshmallow, Mullein, Plantain, Prunella, Queen Anne’s Lace, Red Clover, Saint John’s Wort, Shepherd’s Purse, Slippery Elm, Speedwell, Thuja, Usnea, Vitex, Wood Betony, Yarrow

Whooping cough – see Pertussis.

Whorled – An arrangement of sepals, petals, leaves, stipules or branches that radiate from a single point and surround or wrap around the stem.

Xerostomia – Dry mouth resulting from reduced or absent saliva flow. Xeroxstomia is a side effect of illnesses, medication and other health issues.